Meningococcal disease can refer to any illness caused by a type of bacteria called neisseria meningitidis, also known as meningococcus muhninggohkokus. Clonal expansion of new penicillinresistant clade of. Neisseria meningitidis is a human pathogen that can infect diverse sites within the human host. Meningococcemia is defined as dissemination of meningococci neisseria meningitidis into the bloodstream see the image below. Background meningococcal carriage studies are important to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of meningococcal disease. A read is counted each time someone views a publication summary such as the title, abstract, and list of authors, clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the fulltext.
It can grow on both a blood agar plate bap and a chocolate. Abcs personnel routinely contacted all microbiology laboratories serving acute care hospitals in their area to identify cases. An unexpected increase in neisseria meningitidis genital. Chicago outbreak of meningitis among gay and bisexual men. There is a polysaccharide capsule surrounding the organism. Characterization of carriage isolates of neisseria. Meningococcal disease is a serious infection caused by serotypes a, b, c, w5 and y of the bacteria, neisseria meningitidis. Neisseria meningitidis is an aerobic, gramnegative diplococcus that causes meningococcal diseases such as meningococcemia and bacterial meningitis. Molecular epidemiology of recent belgian isolates of neisseria meningitidis serogroup b. Suggestion merge meningococcemia to neisseria meningitidis. Neisseria meningitidis meningococcal disease is a serious and rapidly progressing illness caused by n.
The 2,272,351base pair genome of neisseria meningitidis strain mc58 serogroup b, a causative agent of meningitis and septicemia, contains 2158 predicted coding regions, 1158 53. Neisseria meningitidis haemophilus influenzae streptococcus pneumoniae streptococcus pyogenes group a strep neisseria meningitidis is immediately reportable on first knowledge or suspicion of the diagnosis due to the potential need for prophylaxis of close contacts within 24 hours of suspected diagnosis suspicion is. Characterization of motility and piliation in pathogenic. Neisseria meningitidis is a bacteria that is best known for its role in endemic bacterial meningitis. Neisseria meningitidis the meningococcus causes significant morbidity and mortality in children and young adults worldwide through epidemic or sporadic meningitis andor septicemia. Pathogenic neisseria meningitidis isolates contain a polysaccharide capsule that is the main virulence determinant for this bacterium. Epidemics of meningococcal meningitis were first described in geneva, switzerland, by vieusseux 2 in 1805, and in.
Acceptable specimen sourcestypes for submission culture isolate isolates from normally sterile sites tdh requisition form number ph4182 media requirements chocolate slant special instructions shipping instructions. Rahman mm, kolli vs, kahler cm et al 2000 the membrane phospholipids of neisseria meningitidis and neisseria gonorrhoeae as characterized by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. Even if treated quickly, meningococcal disease can cause longterm problems or be deadly. Strains are serogrouped on the basis of their capsular polysaccharides. Neisseria meningitidis or meningococcus is a gramnegative, oxidasepositive, aerobic, coccal bacterium that appears microscopically under diplococcal arrangement. The neisseria meningitidis capsule is important for intracellular survival in human cells. Clinical features and diagnosis, section on causative organisms and. The bacteria are spherical, ranging in diameter from 0. In western australia, neisseria meningitidis serogroup w clonal complex 11 became the predominant cause of invasive meningococcal disease in 2016. Meningococcal disease invasive clinician fact sheet. Sep 25, 20 three neisseria meningitidis rna thermosensors important for resistance against complementmediated immune killing are identified, located in the 5. Because transmission of n meningitidis results mainly in asymptomatic carriage, evaluation of oropharyngeal carriage can be helpful to understand the epidemiology and.
He called it diplococcus intracellularis meningitidis because of the presence of the organism within leukocytes from the spinal fluid. Populationbased surveillance of neisseria meningitidis. Epidemiology of neisseria meningitidis infection uptodate. Neisseria meningitidis is immediately reportable on first knowledge or suspicion of the diagnosis due to the potential need for prophylaxis of close contacts within 24 hours of suspected diagnosis suspicion is normally based on gram stain results see table on page 4. We combined comparative genome hybridization using microarrays mcgh and multilocus sequence typing mlst of 29 meningococcal isolates. See epidemiology of neisseria meningitidis infection and bacterial meningitis in children older than one month. Research description and nomenclature of neisseria. Laboratory methods for the diagnosis of meningitis caused by neisseria meningitidis, streptococcus pneumoniae, and haemophilus influenzae. My proposal is on same basis as for meningococcal disease foir which meningococcal meningitis redirects to it, but ill split the proposal in case people feel that one merger has different merits from the other. Meningococcal infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, therefore understanding their molecular biology is crucial to develop therapeutics such as vaccines. We combined comparative genome hybridization using microarrays mcgh and multilocus sequence typing. Background neisseria meningitidis is a naturally transformable, facultative pathogen colonizing the human nasopharynx. Neisseria meningitidis is a gramnegative, either an encapsulated or unencapsulated, aerobic diplococcus with a kidney or coffeebean shape. Neisseria meningitidis, identification and grouping.
Neisseria meningitidis will attach to the microvilli of nonciliated columnar epithelial cells that reside in the nasal region of humans. Virulence evolution of the human pathogen neisseria. Other articles where meningococcal meningitis is discussed. The organism was first recognized by weichselbaum in 1887 in the spinal fluid of six patients with acute cerebrospinal meningitis. Meningokokken, invasive erkrankungen neisseria meningitidis rki. Geographic distribution and epidemic potential differ according to serogroup. Meningitidis is described as a gramnegative diplococci. There are a number of viral and bacterial causes of meningitis, but neisseria meningitidis is the most common cause of the more serious bacterial meningitis in children who are most susceptible to the disease, and one of the most common in adults. Neisseria meningitidis, pcr provider requirements isolate submission or primary sample of csf acceptable specimen sourcestypes for submission culture isolate isolates from normally sterile sites csf tdh requisition form number ph4182 media requirements pure culture specimens transported on agar plates or slants csf. Chemoprophylaxis of healthcare workers exposed to neisseria meningitidis 11 recommendations for the management of laboratory worker exposed to n.
Chapter 7 identification and characterization of neisseria meningitidis. Neisseria meningitidis belongs to the family neisseriaceae footnote 2. A small proportion of infected people can develop a serious form of illness, such as meningitis inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord or a bloodstream infection septicemia. Invasive neisseria meningitis facts for health professionals surveillance invasive disease caused by neisseria meningitidis includes meningitis, septicemia, and other infections. Neisseria meningitidis is an exclusive human pathogen. One of the late signs that one bacterial cause of meningitis, neisseria meningitidis, are in your bloodstream is a faint rash on your skin. Here, we analyze on a genomewide level the impact of recombination on genecomplement diversity and virulence evolution in n.
Ceftriaxone given in a single intramuscular dose is effective in eradicating carriage. About 15% of people carry these bacteria in their throats without getting sick. Meningococcal disease is not very common in the united states, but teens and young adults are at increased risk. Neisseria meningitidis is a gramnegative diplococcus bacterium that is responsible for endemic and epidemic meningococcal meningitis and fulminant meningococcemia munford 2001. Neisseria meningitidis is remarkable for the diversity of interactions that the bacterium has with the human host, ranging from asymptomatic nasopharyngeal colonisation affecting virtually all members of the population. Meningococcal disease neisseria meningitidis 2015 case definition recommend on facebook tweet share compartir note. Three species of bacteria, streptococcus pneumonia, haemophilus influenzae and neisseria meningitidis figure 1, are known to cause this infection. Anton weichselbaum discovered meningococcus, also known as neisseria meningitidis, the bacterium that causes meningitis. Chapter 7 identification and characterization of neisseria. Frequently asked questions about meningococcal disease. Only people who have been in close contact with saliva or respiratory. The fact that this bacteria is gram negative means that there is very little or no peptidoglycan in the cell wall. Weichselbaum 1 was the first to culture meningococcus from patients with meningitis in 1887. Neisseria meningitidis is the one with the potential to cause large epidemics.
During periods of endemic disease, about 10 % of the general population harbour neisseria meningitidis in the nasopharynx. Temperature triggers immune evasion by neisseria meningitidis. Neisseria meningitidis is a fastidious, gramnegative, endotoxinproducing organism that is a normal commensal of the human nasopharynx. Thirteen capsular polysaccharides have been described, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has enabled determination of the structure of capsular polysaccharides responsible for serogroup specificity. The investigation shall include collecting case information, obtaining laboratory. There are more than 500,000 reported cases of meningococcal disease per year, with an estimated annual death toll of 5,000 zimmer and stephens 2004. In sepsis, skin hemorrhages are the hallmark of invasive meningococcal disease. Several of the chapters in this book describe methods that rely on the collection of complete sets of. The bacterium neisseria meningitidis, also called meningococcus, causes meningococcal meningitis. Clients who are identified as exposed contacts and recommended to receive postexposure prophylaxis should be directed to an appropriate resource to receive their pep.
The most common disease caused by neisseria meningitidis is meningococcal meningitis or more commonly known as bacterial meningitis. Some of the most common bacteria known to cause meningitis are described below. Appropriate suspending vehicle or syrup vehicle can be used for liquid suspension rifampin orders. The bacteria are able to multiply and form a colony because of its ability to acquire iron from the host. Description and nomenclature of neisseria meningitidis. Patients with acute infection can present clinically with 1 meningitis, 2 meningitis with meningococcemia, or 3 meningococcemia without obvious meningitis. Household transmission of neisseria meningitidis in the. See the article acute urethritis due to neisseria meningitidis group a acquired by orogenital contact. Getting vaccinated is the best way to prevent meningococcal disease. Meningococcus, the bacterium neisseria meningitidis, which causes meningococcal meningitis in humans, who are the only natural hosts in which it causes disease. Neisseria meningitidis an overview sciencedirect topics. Pathogenesis and immunity article pdf available in current opinion in microbiology 23c. The disease usually comes on quickly with severe headaches, high fever, pain and stiffness of the neck, back, and shoulders and nausea follows shortly after all of these.
However, the incidence is highest in the late winter and early spring. Identification of a new neisseria meningitidis serogroup c clone from anhui province, china. The epidemiology and serogroup distribution can change very quickly. A surveillance case definition is a set of uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health surveillance. Csf, blood are to be investigated in accordance with the communicable disease reporting rule 410 iac 12.
Feb 04, 2014 this bacteriology lecture will explain the general properties of neisseria meningitidis and it also explains the disease, pathogenesis, and treatment of neisseria meningitidis infection. A bactericidal assay is described which allows identification of distinct serotypes within a serogroup of neisseria meningitidis. Meningitis arises upon inflammation of the meninges, which consists of the membrane that envelops and protects the central nervous system. In children and teens, meningococcus is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis.
The bacterium is referred to as a coccus because it is round, and more specifically, diplococcus because of its tendency to form pairs. The meningococci are one of the main causes of meningococcal meningitis. Neisserial motility is enabled by type iv pili tfp, which are long and dynamic filaments expressed by a phylogenetically diverse set of bacterial species, such as pseudomonas aeruginosa, vibrio cholerae, legionella pneumophila. Such isolates are infrequent in our clinic setting but an unexpected increase of 4 genital n. Most carrier isolates are shown to lack capsule production. Neisseria meningitidis is a gramnegative human pathogen that can cause severe meningitis and septicemia with symptoms that can worsen rapidly. Materials and methods a total of 1459 oropharyngeal. Antimicrobial treatment and chemoprophylaxis for patients with meningococcal disease and their close contacts is critical. N meningitidis antigen by ihc specify ihc specimen 1. Meningococcal meningitis is caused by gramnegative diplococci, neisseria meningitidis. Full text get a printable copy pdf file of the complete article 384k, or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Neisseria meningitidis is a common cause of communityacquired bacterial meningitis in children and adults in the united states and in many other countries.
Advanced methods and protocols offers a collection of methods and protocols that reflect the development and refinement of several new technologies applied to the meningococcus as presented by expert researchers. The epidemiology of neisseria meningitidis is dynamic, with risk of meningococcal disease varying widely by region and depending on a confluence of host, organism, and environmental factors. Neisseria meningitidis wikipedia, a enciclopedia livre. Who laboratory methods for the diagnosis of meningitis. Meningococcal meningitis, meningococcal infection, cerebrospinal fever, meningococcemia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of meningococcal carriage and the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of isolates collected from a sample of students in the city of bogota, colombia.
Diagnosis and prevention of neisseria meningitides induced. Reports of anogenital disease caused by neisseria meningitidis are uncommon, and occasional anogenital isolates found in otherwise healthy individuals are generally held to be incidental findings that do not require treatment. Neisseria meningitidis, often referred to as meningococcus, is a gramnegative bacterium that can cause meningitis and other forms of meningococcal disease such as meningococcemia, a lifethreatening sepsis. Diagnosis, initial management, and prevention of meningitis. Population structure and capsular switching of invasive neisseria meningitidis isolates in the premeningococcal conjugate vaccine eraunited states, 20002005. Meningococcal disease meningococcal disease is a rare, but very serious illness caused by a type of bacteria called neisseria meningitidis. Antisera produced in rabbits against seven group c strains by two intravenous inoculations of live organisms. The closely related pathogens neisseria gonorrhoeae and neisseria meningitidis colonize human mucosal epithelia, however, at different sites in the body. Neisseria meningitidis, identification and grouping provider requirements isolate submission required. New classification of neisseria meningitidis by means of. Routine throat or nasopharyngeal culture of contacts is not helpful in determining who warrants chemoprophylaxis.
Bei neisseria meningitidis handelt es sich um kleine durchmesser 1m. The bacteria from a meningococcal meningitis infection. The sides are flattened and this organism is recognizable in gram stain by an experienced microscopist. Liquor, blut, material aus hauteffloreszenzen, oropharyngeale. Except for the genes involved in the capsule biosynthesis, which are lacking in the commensal neisseria spp.
This manual summarizes laboratory techniques used in the isolation and identification of neisseria meningitidis the meningococcus, streptococcus pneumoniae. When a single instance of neisseria meningitidis occurs, the state and county health departments work together to insure that appropriate contacts obtain antibiotics. It is a gramnegative, nonspore forming, nonmotile, encapsulated, and non acidfast diplococci, which appears in kidney bean shape under the microscope footnote 1. Ciprofloxacin, administered to adults in a single oral dose is effective in. Meningococcal disease is a serious illness caused by the bacterium neisseria meningitidis also known as meningococcus.1423 1271 1431 846 720 1018 1490 1612 49 34 864 414 1582 1179 1409 1492 1549 1341 1247 570 105 261 938 1552 18 1672 546 338 1404 138 1435 1104 700 1321 1314 216 885 1158 848 478 1363 1342 1263 1006 1032